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ČERNOŠICE - Curriculum vitae

cernosice_znakCernosice is a town in the Czech Republic, Central Bohemian Region, Prague-West District. It is situated on the south-west outskirts of Prague, on the left bank of the river Berounka. The present-day town is made up of three parts: Horni Cernosice, Dolni Mokropsy and Vraz. It has 5096 inhabitants,
whose average age is 39.4 ( ČSÚ - 2005 ).
Since 2003, Černošice has been a Municipality with Extended Competence.
Thanks to its good transport connections to Prague and its romantic location
at the edge of the Protected Landscape Area of Cesky Kras, Cernosice
has been a popular residential area with a number of magnificent villas since the 1920s.
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The town has an elementary school (age 6-15), a few kindergartens, a music and arts school, a library, a cinema, a nursing home for senior citizens, an indoor ice rink, a football pitch, a skatepark, a gym (Sokol),
a post office, a pharmacy, doctors and paediatricians, a dentist, a gynaecologist, a fire brigade, a city police station, sewage works, two cemeteries and 17 cottage settlements.
Most houses are connected to gas, mains water and sewerage. 

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History
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cernosice_stanice_mokropsycernosice_lipa_na_vrazi

Dolní Mokropsy is mentioned as early as 1088 in the Vyšehrad foundation charter. Horní Černošice is first mentioned in the Kladruby Monastery foundation charter of 1115. Horní Černošice grew from a few farms around a small common in front of the church. Trade routes of great importance led through the villages - the route from Prague to Bechyně and the route from the Prague Castle to Karlštejn.
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Černošice underwent its toughest period in the times of the Thirty Years' War. In 1639, a Swedish commander had the place burnt to the ground while he was moving his troops towards Prague. During the war, there was a great decline in population due to the war losses, epidemics and emigration.
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Up to the second half of the 19th century, the settlement and the way of life in Černošice were mainly of an agricultural character, which was not even disrupted by two new brickyards in Dolní Mokropsy.   
One of the most important events in the history of Černošice was the arrival of the railway. The single track from Prague to Plzeň was opened in 1862. That brought about a tourist and building boom. Lidos were constructed along the river and villas started to be built.
This trend was then inhibited by World War I. However, when the war was over, the process started again with even greater intensity.
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Černošice became one of the most famous residential and weekend-cottage satellites of the period called the First Republic. But the development of the place was then stopped again by World War II. After the war, in 1950, the villages Horní Černošice, Dolní Černošice and Dolní Mokropsy were joined together; in 1974 Dolní Černošice was separated off and incorporated in Prague 5 - Lipence. In 1969 Černošice received the status of a town.
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The  Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary
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cernosice_kostelThe church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary is the oldest preserved historic building in the town. The first references go back to 1352 when it is mentioned as a parish church. It is situated on a man-made terrace above the river Berounka at the eastern edge of the historical centre of Horní Černošice. The church was built by the Cistercian monastery in Zbraslav, which had owned Černošice since the beginning of 14th century. In 17th century the church came under the parish of Radotín. The church cannot be definitely attributed to a particular style of architecture, due to the number of alterations it has gone through. The architecture of the church building is not very ostentatious. Its most distinctive part is the baroque tower, square in the lower part and octagonal in the upper part, with a round arch window on each side. Except for this tower, there is no architectural decoration on the outside of the church. The design of the interior is far more interesting. Over the aisle is a dome delineated with stuccowork. A baroque painting of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary dominates the high altar from 1713, with statues of the Slavonic missionaries Cyril and Methodius on either side.
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The “Na Bluku” Mill
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cernosice_mlyn_blukOn the right bank of the river Berounka, in what was Dolní Černošice, there is a former water mill beyond the footbridge. Written references date from 1523 up to the 20th century.
Kazín
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cernosice_kazinKazín is the name given nowadays to the fort on a slate rock on the right bank of the river Berounka near Černošice.
The solitary rock rises over the calm surface of the river, separated from the surrounding slopes by a gorge – an optimal place for a fort. But was the fort of the legendary princess Kazi really here? Chroniclers and historians
(Kosma, Dalimil, Václav Hájek of Libočany, Daniel Adam of Veleslavín) argued over that for a long time. All the disputes were brought to an end by the archaeologist Jan Axamita,
who carried out research here in 1916 finding out that the Kazín fort is a medieval stronghold. Before that, there were two other hillside settlements, an older Neolithic one (late Stone Age) followed by a fort from
the late Iron Age. There has never been a Slavonic fort.
Kazín near Černošice therefore cannot be the legendary fort of the mythical forefather Krok’s daughter. Nonetheless, we can go and have a look at it anyway.
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Origins of the names of the individual parts of the town
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cernosiceČernošice - The name originally indicated that the village belonged to the family line of “Černoch”
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cernosice_mokropsyDolní (Lower) Mokropsy - The name of the community comes from the mocking expression ‘village of wet dogs’ (mokří psi). Fisherman living along the ancient marshes along the river Berounka were often nicknamed ‘wet dogs’ by the prince of Vysehrad who came here with his retinue to hunt. All this region then belonged to Vysehrad.
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cernosice_vrazVráž - The origin of the name is not yet completely clear. The historian František Palacký pointed to the closeness of the word to ‘vrah’ (killer). Younger philologists on the other hand suggest the word originates from ‘vraziti’, which in Old Slavonic means magic or fortune-telling. There was a hypothesis that ‘vraz’s were originally unsettled areas where witchcraft took place. Roman Jacobson also alleged that the word ‘vraz’ is similar to the Russian ‘ovrag’ (hollow). Professor Horak, however, disputes this interpretation observing that there are also ‘Vraz’s on mountains.
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The Municipal Coat of Arms
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cernosice_znakcernosice_praporThe right to use the municipal coat of arms was given to Černošice on May 7 1992. The symbol consists of a gold and blue shield with a rounded bottom. There is a green three-leaved clover in the middle.                                               
The symbolic meaning of municipal coat of arms: the blue colour represents the river Berounka, the gold one the town’s opportunities for relaxation and tourism. The green colour stands for the characteristic natural landscape of Černošice. The three leaves represent the three parts of the present town – Horní Černošice, Dolní Mokropsy and Vráž.
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Geography
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cernosice_rekaČernošice extends over 906 hectares of very dispersed terrain.
A lot of places fall within the Protected Landscape Area of Český Kras. The highest hill is Babka (364.3 m, i.e. 1,195 ft AMSL).
The most important watercourse in Černošice is the river Berounka, which starts in Plzeň, after the confluence of the Mže and the Radbuza and is 139 km long (239 km together with the Mže). The Berounka is the biggest left-hand tributary
of the river Vltava. Apart from the Berounka, there is also
a brook called Švarcava, running into the Berounka. The climate in Černošice is dry and warm, with an average yearly temperature of 8 degrees Celsius and an average annual rainfall ranging from 500 to 600mm.
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Crops
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cernosice_svestkaThe Černošice Plum – a cultivar of Czech origin, tolerant of Plum Pox. Fruits of medium size, roundish, with dusty dark blue, rather sour, skin. The flesh is greenish- yellow, sweet, with a pleasantly tangy taste, good to eat. Ripens in July.
(for further info in Czech click on the picture)

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Outstanding inhabitants
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zdenek_lhotaA lot of outstanding Czech personalities had either their summerhouse or permanent home in Černošice.
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* Scientists:
*Jan Janský – doctor and scientist, the discoverer of the four blood groups
* Josef Bláha – fruit grower (cultivated Bláha’s apple and Černošice pear)
* Karel Otavský – inventor, constructer, astronomer
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Artists:
*Jarmila NovotnáNational theatre soprano, also performed in the Vienna State Opera and the Metropolitan Opera in New York
* Anna Sedláčková – actress
*Ferenc Futurista (real name: František Fiala) – actor performing in Prague’s cabarets and in Osvobozené divadlo (the Liberated Theatre of Voskovec and Werich)
* Marie Borková – sculptor
* Marie Fisherová – Kvěchová – painter, illustrator
* Eduard Haken – National theatre opera soloist
* Jaroslav Foglar – writer
* Vilém Heckel – photographer
* Pavel Štecha - photographer
* Michal Bukovič - lyricist
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Sportspeople:
* Jaroslav Bouček – footballer
* Zdeněk Lhota – pilot; won several international competitions
* Karel Ardelt – tennis player, Davis Cup semi-finalist
in the 1930th
* Vladimír Kobranov hockey player, World and European Champion - 1949
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Chess players and many others ... ... ...
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© Translation: Hanka Jelínková, The Redbrick House, Černošice,with the help of Alison Siddall, The Coach House, Sedbergh

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